Hoffmeier discusses the issue of large and symbolic numbers, dealing primarily with the number and the use of the number 40 in the Bible. He also discusses the problem of the Pharaoh of the Exodus and issues related to the conquest of Canaan. In his conclusion, Prof. Hoffmeier says that there are biblical and archaeological evidence for a 13th-century for the date of the Exodus. I agree with his conclusions.
The biblical evidence points to a 13th-century date for the Exodus and so does the archaeological evidence, as Prof. As for the large number in 1 Kings 6: Hoffmeier also shows in his article. I also concur with Prof. This is an article worth reading. Exodus , James Hoffmeier , Rameses , Merneptah.
So we have proof that the biblical authors updated place names long after the event, which makes any argument from the dating of place names rather weak.
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A 15th century Exodus would not be in the Hyksos period on an orthodox Egyptian chronology. Any dating from the Shishak invasion is circular calculation, because this event is dated primarily from the biblical evidence. The 15th-century date for the Exodus has the same weaknesses as the 13th-century date. However, I believe the archaeological evidence for the 13th century is stronger than the archaeological evidence for a 15th century. Joseph Callaway, my archaeology professor, spent more than a decade excavating at Ai. While working on my Ph. That alone convinced me that a 13th-century date better fits the archaeological evidence.
Must we defend the Exodus as stated and thus choose one of the chronologies as our battleground?
The Late Date
True, as you state, a strict reading of I Kings 6: It may be that either method is forcing data which are not data at all into pre- conceived structures. Neither date for a mass Exodus of millions and a destructive conquest seems to fit with the present understanding.
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- The Exodus?
Debating dates serves as little value to me as arguing various routes of the Exodus or calculating how many quail would be needed to feed a multitude. An exodus, of some sort, may be a kernel of the ancestral story, but other ideas about the national origin of Israel can be considered and even espoused without abandoning belief.
While no model will be sufficient to reconcile all of the complexity of a history, ideas of local revolts or Yahweh-themed proto-Israel alliances sure fit the archaeology better.
I mean no disrespect to your view, but wanted to make some minor point that not all believers affirm the Exodus story in full. Drawing a line in the sand about one date or another may be misplacing the emphasis.
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Historically, when a believer sticks to some point, beleiving it to be the linchpin in his sytem, he is left floundering if that linchpin is ever proved false. I apologize for the delay in answering your comment. I had to take some time off to complete some writing assignments. You have a long but very interesting article. You also provide a lot on information and links that I need to read and consider before I can provide an informed response.
The Date and Pharaoh of the Exodus?
Thank you for sending me a link of your article. I will read some of your work and maybe we can begin a dialogue with some of the issues you raise. I have no serious argument with your comments. I do not believe that millions of people came out of Egypt, but even scholars like Gottwald, Alt, and Noth spoke of people coming out of Egypt. It is clear that the Old Testament itself provides some evidence that some Canaanites formed the nucleus of what eventually became Israel. I do not draw any line on the sand, but I believe there is historical evidence for the presence of the habiru in Egypt and it is very possible that some of them became the Hebrews of the Bible.
Mariottini does not deem it rude for me to suggest Peter to visit my review on their exchange: You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account.
Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Claude Mariottini — Professor of Old Testament. Surely, what these patterns mean are more important than the mere plotting of them down on some time-line! Nonetheless, I am personally confident that the majority view of the scholars is correct , that is, that the Exodus was in c.
And if indeed this date is correct, then we have an astounding fact before usthe patterns of the above chart happen to work flawlessly with this same date of BC. The patterns not only continue uninterrupted, but indeed they blossom and converge at the birth of Christ. A remarkable coincidence indeedif it is a coincidence! For example, since the temple was begun in BC, years after the Exodus 1Kgs. This means, therefore, that the , , and the patterns continue unabated and indeed converge at Christ's birth! It is reasonable to inquire as to whether or not the popular date of BC for the Exodus was simply a concoction by scholars to fit the bible numbers.
However, the BC date was not chosen arbitrarily but was the consequence of first establishing the date for Solomon's temple as c. Moreover, most scholars reject out-of-hand the day-equals-a-year principle , thus they would not have been influenced by the bible numbers in ascertaining the Exodus date since they do not as much as believe in them as I have here displayed them!
Interestingly, the day-for-year principle was the norm for centuries before us. However, bible students that lived during those centuries lacked the correct dates and thus they did not discover anything substantial in their exhausting studies. Ironically, while our generation possesses the correct dates indeed, yet they have generally forsaken the day-for-year principle and so have overlooked the patterns in the bible numbers! By this, God "sealed up" the understanding of the numbers until our day.
In conclusion then, even though the establishing of specific dates is of tremendous value in the study of the numbers, yet it is by no means a prerequisite for reaping its benefits. Many patterns exist internally within the bible itself unaffected by date setting, and are of great value in aiding biblical interpretation. Nevertheless, there are far-reaching benefits reaped by the establishing of exact dates. The patterns that result from them not only aid biblical interpretation, but also prove the reality of the Lord Jesus Christ to an unbelieving generation.